HTML5 迁移


从 HTML4 迁移至 HTML5

本章讲解如何从一张典型的 HTML4 页面迁移至典型的 HTML5。

本章演示如何把一张已有的 HTML4 页面转换为 HTML5 页面,在不破坏如何原始内容和结构的情况下。

注释:您可以使用相同的技巧从 HTML4 以及 XHTML 迁移至 HTML5。

典型的 HTML4 典型的 HTML5
<div id="header"> <header>
<div id="menu"> <nav>
<div id="content"> <section>
<div id="post"> <article>
<div id="footer"> <footer>

典型的 HTML4 页面

实例

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" 
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
<title>HTML4</title>
<style>
  body {font-family:Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.8em;}
  div#header,div#footer,div#content,div#post 
  {border:1px solid grey;margin:5px;margin-bottom:15px;padding:8px;background-color:white;}
  div#header,div#footer {color:white;background-color:#444;margin-bottom:5px;}
  div#content {background-color:#ddd;}
  div#menu ul {margin:0;padding:0;}
  div#menu ul li {display:inline; margin:5px;}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<div id="header">
  <h1>Monday Times</h1>
</div>

<div id="menu">
  <ul>
    <li>News</li>
    <li>Sports</li>
    <li>Weather</li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div id="content">
<h2>News Section</h2>

<div id="post">
  <h2>News Article</h2>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
</div>

<div id="post">
  <h2>News Article</h2>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
</div>

</div>

<div id="footer">
  <p>&copy; 2014 Monday Times. All rights reserved.</p>
</div>

</body>
</html>

更改为 HTML5 Doctype

修改文档类型,从 HTML4 doctype:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" 
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

修改为 HTML5 doctype:

<!DOCTYPE html>

更改为 HTML5 编码

修改编码信息,从 HTML4:

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">

改为 HTML5:

<meta charset="utf-8">

添加 shiv

所有现代浏览器都支持 HTML5 语义元素。

此外,您可以“教授”老式浏览器如何处理“未知元素”。

为 Internet Explorer 支持而添加的 shiv:

<!--[if lt IE 9]>
  <script src="http://html5shiv.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/html5.js"></script>
<![endif]-->

注释:请在 HTML5 浏览器支持中阅读更多有关 shiv 的知识。


为 HTML5 语义元素添加 CSS

请看已有的 CSS 样式:

div#header,div#footer,div#content,div#post {
    border:1px solid grey;margin:5px;margin-bottom:15px;padding:8px;background-color:white;
}
div#header,div#footer {
    color:white;background-color:#444;margin-bottom:5px;
}
div#content {
    background-color:#ddd;
}
div#menu ul {
    margin:0;padding:0;
}
div#menu ul li {
    display:inline; margin:5px;
}
Duplicate with equal CSS styles for HTML5 semantic elements:

header,footer,section,article {
    border:1px solid grey;margin:5px;margin-bottom:15px;padding:8px;background-color:white;
}
header,footer {
    color:white;background-color:#444;margin-bottom:5px;
}
section {
    background-color:#ddd;
}
nav ul  {
    margin:0;padding:0;
}
nav ul li {
    display:inline; margin:5px;
}

更改为 HTML5 <header> 和 <footer>

把 id="header" 和 id="footer" 的 <div> 元素:

<div id="header">
  <h1>Monday Times</h1>
</div>
.
.
.
<div id="footer">
  <p>&copy; 2014 magicsites. All rights reserved.</p>
</div>

修改为 HTML5 语义元素 <header> 和 <footer>:

<header>
  <h1>Monday Times</h1>
</header>
.
.
.
<footer>
  <p>© 2014 magicsites. All rights reserved.</p>
</footer>

更改为 HTML5 <nav>

把 id="menu" 的 <div> 元素:

<div id="menu">
  <ul>
    <li>News</li>
    <li>Sports</a></li>
    <li>Weather</li>
  </ul>
</div>

修改为 HTML5 语义元素 <nav>:

<nav>
  <ul>
    <li>News</li>
    <li>Sports</a></li>
    <li>Weather</li>
  </ul>
</nav>

更改为 HTML5 <section>

把 id="content" 的 the <div> 元素:

<div id="content">
.
.
.
</div>

修改为 HTML5 语义元素 <section>:

<section>
.
.
.
</section>

更改为 HTML5 <article>

把 class="post" 的所有 <div> 元素:

<div class="post">
  <h2>News Article</h2>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
</div>

修改为 HTML5 语义元素 <article>:

<article>
  <h2>News Article</h2>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
</article>

删除这些“不再需要的”样式:

div#header,div#footer,div#content,div#post {
    border:1px solid grey;margin:5px;margin-bottom:15px;padding:8px;background-color:white;
}
div#header,div#footer {
    color:white;background-color:#444;margin-bottom:5px;
}
div#content {
    background-color:#ddd;
}
div#menu ul {
    margin:0;padding:0;
}
div#menu ul li {
    display:inline; margin:5px;
}

典型的 HTML5 页面

最后您可以删除 <head> 标签。HTML5 中不再需要它们:

实例

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<title>HTML5</title>
<meta charset="utf-8">

<!--[if lt IE 9]>
<script src="http://html5shiv.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/html5.js">
</script>
<![endif]-->

<style>
body {
    font-family:Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.8em;
}
header,footer,section,article {
    border:1px solid grey;
    margin:5px;margin-bottom:15px;padding:8px;
    background-color:white;
}
header,footer {
    color:white;background-color:#444;margin-bottom:5px;
}
section {
    background-color:#ddd;
}
nav ul {
    margin:0;padding:0;
}
nav ul li {
    display:inline; margin:5px;
}
</style>
<body>

<header>
  <h1>Monday Times</h1>
</header>

<nav>
  <ul>
    <li>News</li>
    <li>Sports</li>
    <li>Weather</li>
  </ul>
</nav>

<section>
<h2>News Section</h2>

<div id="post">
  <h2>News Article</h2>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
</div>

<div id="post">
<h2>News Article</h2>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
  <p>Ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum lurum hurum turum ipsum 
  lurum hurum turum.</p>
</div>

</section>

<footer>
  <p>&copy; 2014 Monday Times. All rights reserved.</p>
</footer>

</body>
</html>

<article> <section> 与 <div> 之间的差异

在 HTML5 标准中,<article> <section> 与 <div> 之间的差异很小,令人困惑。

在 HTML5 标准中,<section> 元素被定位为相关元素的块。

<article> 元素被定义为相关元素的完整的自包含块。

<div> 元素被定义为子元素的块。

如何理解呢?

在上面的例子中,我们曾使用 <section> 作为相关 <articles> 的容器。

但是,我们也能够把 <article> 用作文章的容器。

下面是一些不同的例子:

<article> 中的 <article>:

<article>

<h2>Famous Cities</h2>

<article>
<h2>London</h2>
<p>London is the capital city of England. It is the most populous city in the United Kingdom,
with a metropolitan area of over 13 million inhabitants.</p>
</article>

<article>
<h2>Paris</h2>
<p>Paris is the capital and most populous city of France.</p>
</article>

<article>
<h2>Tokyo</h2>
<p>Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area,
and the most populous metropolitan area in the world.</p>
</article>

</article>
<article> 中的 <div>:

<article>

<h2>Famous Cities</h2>

<div class="city">
<h2>London</h2>
<p>London is the capital city of England. It is the most populous city in the United Kingdom,
with a metropolitan area of over 13 million inhabitants.</p>
</div>

<div class="city">
<h2>Paris</h2>
<p>Paris is the capital and most populous city of France.</p>
</div>

<div class="city">
<h2>Tokyo</h2>
<p>Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area,
and the most populous metropolitan area in the world.</p>
</div>

</article>
<article> 中的 <section> 中的 <div>:

<article>

<section>
<h2>Famous Cities</h2>

<div class="city">
<h2>London</h2>
<p>London is the capital city of England. It is the most populous city in the United Kingdom,
with a metropolitan area of over 13 million inhabitants.</p>
</div>

<div class="city">
<h2>Paris</h2>
<p>Paris is the capital and most populous city of France.</p>
</div>

<div class="city">
<h2>Tokyo</h2>
<p>Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area,
and the most populous metropolitan area in the world.</p>
</div>
</section>

<section>
<h2>Famous Countries</h2>

<div class="country">
<h2>England</h2>
<p>London is the capital city of England. It is the most populous city in the United Kingdom,
with a metropolitan area of over 13 million inhabitants.</p>
</div>

<div class="country">
<h2>France</h2>
<p>Paris is the capital and most populous city of France.</p>
</div>

<div class="country">
<h2>Japan</h2>
<p>Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area,
and the most populous metropolitan area in the world.</p>
</div>
</section>

</article>



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